Reverse Osmosis (RO) is a separation approach that is appropriate for a extensive range of functions, especially when salt and/or dissolved solids have to be faraway from an answer. It is considered one of the most common forms of water treatment.
According to Anelia Hough, water therapy consultant at Allmech, leading South African manufacturer of boilers and supplier of water remedy elements, there are several factors to be thought-about when selecting an RO system: the customer’s capacity requirement (i.e. water usage), the day by day production capacity of the system, and the % rejection for particular contaminants within the supply water.
“Beyond this, RO plants require proper upkeep and care to ensure they operate optimally and to increase their lifespan,” she says. “Aside from common maintenance, the best way to protect a RO plant is by pre-treating water, which reduces the strain on the RO membrane – a costly part. It additionally helps to avoid issues like scaling and bio-fouling.”

Common Issues with RO Plants

“Factors that may have an result on a RO system’s efficiency embody temperature, working strain, back stress, the equilibrium effect/TDS creep, % restoration, and, after all, the RO membrane’s permeate production and percent rejection ratings,” says Hough.
The commonest issues in RO crops include:
• Fouling: happens when contaminants accumulate on the membrane floor, effectively plugging the membrane. There are many contaminants in municipal feed water that are harmless for human consumption, however giant sufficient to shortly foul (or plug) an RO system.
• Scaling: when particles are deposited on a membrane, causing it to plug. As certain dissolved compounds turn out to be extra concentrated, scaling can occur if these compounds exceed their solubility limits and precipitate on the membrane floor as scale. Scaling calculations are often solely primarily based on the silicate focus in the feed water.
• Biofouling: reduces precise membrane efficiency via microbial era in a biofilm that varieties on the membrane floor.
• Chemical injury: on a RO membrane, this means a higher permeate move and poorer high quality permeate water. Dosing of ไดอะแฟรม ซีล , such as chlorine or hypochlorite, can scale back efficiency and in the end outcome within the failure of the RO membranes. Use of aggressive cleaners can also trigger chemical damage.
• Mechanical injury: can happen when a system is pressurised too quickly, damaging the RO membrane parts. One of essentially the most clears indicators of damages on a RO membrane is the shortage of salt rejection capabilities. There is also fairly often a rise of permeate move rate.
Pre-treatment might help to avoid these issues, and Hough says there are various choices obtainable.
Pre-treatment Options

“When choosing a pre-filter, customers ought to at all times look for a verified effectivity ranking subsequent to the micron measurement on the filter’s technical data sheet,” says Hough.
• Multi Media Filtration: A multi-media filter is used to assist prevent fouling of a RO system. This type of sediment filtration is right for a pre-treatment process to any reverse osmosis system helping to make sure lengthy life of the RO membrane parts. A well operated multimedia filter can take away particulates down to twenty microns. A multimedia filter that makes use of a coagulant addition can remove particulates down to 10 microns.
• Micro Filtration: The filters utilized in microfiltration have a pore measurement of roughly zero.1 micron. Bacteria and suspended solids are the one component that can be removed by way of microfiltration.
• Antiscalants and scale inhibitors: There are many chemicals that can be utilized as antiscalants and dispersants to enhance the operation of RO. Antiscalants are a household of chemical compounds designed to inhibit the formation and precipitation of crystallized mineral salts that form scale.
• Softening by ion exchange: A water softener is a filtration system that removes hardness-causing calcium and magnesium minerals from water via a process known as ion exchange. Standard water softeners are cation change units. Cation change involves the alternative of the hardness ions with non-hardness ions.
• Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) Filtration: Activated carbon removes residual chlorine and chloramines by a chemical reaction that entails a switch of electrons from the surface of the GAC to the residual chlorine or chloramines. The chlorine or chloramines end up as a chloride ion that is no longer an oxidizer.
“It’s additionally essential to wash the RO membrane frequently,” says Hough. “This involves low and high pH cleaners to take away contaminants from the membrane. We tackle scaling with low pH cleaners and organics, while colloidal and biofouling are treated with a excessive pH cleaner.”

Allmech offers the whole range of pre-treatment and RO membrane maintenance options for RO crops, including filtration techniques, softeners, antiscalants, chemicals and other consumables.
“At digital pressure gauge , we’re wanting ahead to growing this a part of our enterprise in 2022 and past, leveraging our experience in all things associated to water remedy. We even have a boiler division and we stock a complete vary of Runxin valves, so we’re well positioned to be a one-stop store for anyone needing a water treatment or boiler specialist, and we’re anticipating a busy 12 months forward,” Hough says.

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